The GBA : A Rising World-class Port Group
The Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Dawan District is surrounded by the sea and has developed economy. It has unique conditions for port development. It is one of the world’s largest regional port groups with the best capacity and deep water conditions. The regional port throughput ranks first in the world’s bay areas. In 2017, Dawan District has a total of 5 billion tons of large ports such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Dongguan and Zhuhai. The throughput of ports such as Zhongshan, Huizhou and Foshan has exceeded 8,000 tons. The three international hub ports of Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong continue to play a leading role. The ports around the east and west sides of the Pearl River Estuary go hand in hand, and the river-sea combined transport in the Xijiang River Basin is more convenient. An international shipping center and a world-class port group that are strong in strength, close in cooperation, clear in division of labor, and serving the economic development of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region are taking shape.
The position of Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong is becoming clearer.
Among the many ports in the Greater Bay Area of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau, the ports of Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong have always occupied a central position. They are also international hub ports with outstanding strength. They are among the top ten in the ranks of the top 100 global ports in the UK. The sum of the total is more than the sum of the last 30 in the top 100 ports. In the past decade or so, the strength of the three ports has constantly changed. With the strong rise of Shenzhen Port, Dawan District has formed a situation in which Shenzhen and Hong Kong “both heroes fight for hegemony”. In recent years, Guangzhou Port has been struggling to catch up, forming a three-pronged pattern with Shenzhen Port and Hong Kong Port. In 2017, the three ports of Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong continued this pattern.
In 2017, Guangzhou Port completed a total cargo throughput of 590 million tons, ranking first in the ports of Dawan Bay and ranking third in the national coastal ports, second only to Ningbo-Zhoushan Port and Shanghai Port. In terms of containers, Guangzhou Port exceeded 20 million TEUs for the first time, with a total throughput of 20.35 million TEUs, ranking third among all ports in Dawan District. The gap between Guangzhou Port and Shenzhen Port has shrunk from 6.98 million TEU in 2016 to 4.85 million TEU last year.
Shenzhen Port ranked third in Dawan District with a cargo throughput of 241,362,800 tons. In terms of containers, Shenzhen Port completed a total container throughput of 25.208 million TEU for the whole year, an increase of 5.13% year-on-year, the highest increase in the past 10 years, and the throughput continues to be located in the top three in the world. However, due to the stronger growth of Ningbo-Zhoushan Port, the gap between the two ports has been shrinking.
In the first three quarters of 2017, Hong Kong Port completed a total cargo throughput of 206.81 million tons, ranking second in all ports in Dawan District. In terms of containers, Hong Kong Port achieved its first positive growth in the past six years, with a total container throughput of 20.763 million TEU, an increase of 4.8% year-on-year and a return to the rank of 20 million.
Over the years, guangzhou, shenzhen and Hong Kong have made common progress in the competition. With the rapid development of the guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area, strengthening cooperation, clarifying the division of labor and achieving competition and cooperation among the three ports in the future will be conducive to the better development of themselves and the bay area port cluster. Relying on the developed foreign trade, shenzhen will be able to transport goods mainly on the international trunk line of the pearl river delta in the future, and become the port of import and export of goods on the east bank of the pearl river estuary and the hinterland of southern jiangxi. Guangzhou has a broad hinterland in the west bank of the pearl river estuary, north guangdong, hunan, central and northern guangxi, guizhou, etc., which can be the main coastal transportation of inland containers and become the port for import and export of goods in these areas. With the advantages of low tax and exemption, Hong Kong can continue to develop entrepot business and become an international entrepot serving the greater bay area.
The ports on both sides developing together
Although the neighboring ports on the east and west sides of the pearl river estuary are not as heavyweight as the three leading ports in terms of port scale, economic hinterland, air routes and other indicators, they have made gratifying achievements in development by making full use of their own advantages.
Dongguan port is the fourth largest port in the bay area. In the ranking of Lloyd’s 2016 top 100 global ports, dongguan port ranks the 40th, and its strength cannot be underestimated. In 2017, the port handled a total of 15.7 million tons of cargo, up 7.75 percent year-on-year. In terms of containers, the port handled 3.913 million TEU of containers, up 7.44 percent year-on-year. As the “factory of the world”, dongguan has a huge demand for shipping, which will continue to provide impetus for the development of dongguan port and support the port to become bigger and stronger.
Huizhou port is a rare natural port in south China. In 2017, huizhou port handled 72.11 million tons of goods and 354,000 TEU of containers. In the future, huizhou port will gradually develop into a multi-functional and comprehensive port that focuses on petroleum and chemical products and containers and takes into account the transportation of sundries and bulk cargoes.
Relying on the local advanced manufacturing industry and convenient transportation, zhongshan port has also achieved good development results. In 2017, zhongshan port handled 80.44 million tons of cargo, up 18.5 percent year-on-year. Meanwhile, container throughput reached 1.44 million TEU, up 6.3 percent year-on-year. In the future, zhongshan port will strive to build a world-class advanced manufacturing base in the guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area and build a regional comprehensive transportation hub. Zhongshan port will also embrace new development opportunities.
珠海港是全国 25 个沿海主要港口之一。2017年，珠海港共完成货物吞吐量13586万吨，完成集装箱吞吐量227万TEU。随着珠三角能源密集型企业向粤西转移，以及广深两港大宗散货向周边港口外溢，珠海港有望实现进一步快速发展。
Zhuhai port is one of the 25 major coastal ports in China. In 2017, zhuhai port handled 135.86 million tons of cargo and 2.27 million TEU of containers. Zhuhai port is expected to achieve further rapid development as energy-intensive enterprises in the pearl river delta move to the west of guangdong province and bulk cargo from guangzhou and shenzhen spill over to neighboring ports.
River-sea combined transport is more convenient
With a total length of 2,214 kilometers, xijiang river, second only to the Yangtze river in surface runoff, is a famous “golden waterway” in China’s inland waterway. Xijiang waterway connects yunnan, guizhou, guangxi and other provinces with rich natural resources, and the pearl river water network directly connects Hong Kong and Macao, and directly connects with the international shipping network. It is not only the main artery of water transportation between guangdong and guangdong, but also an important outlet for building the “pan-pearl river delta” regional economic system and china-asean free trade area. Zhaoqing port is located in xijiang corridor and “pan-pearl river delta” throat area, with very superior geographical advantages and shipping conditions. In recent years, the navigation condition of xijiang golden waterway has been improved continuously. After several times of expansion and upgrading, the navigable capacity of zhaoqing section of xijiang river waterway has been upgraded from 1000t in 2008 to 3000t in 2017, and zhaoqing port has also ushered in rapid development. In the first three quarters of 2017, zhaoqing port handled a total of 28.84 million tons of cargo, up 21 percent year-on-year. In terms of containers, in the first three quarters of 2017, zhaoqing port completed 591,000 TEU of container throughput, up 13 percent year-on-year. Driven by the growth effect of guangfo-hajime economic circle, zhaoqing port is expected to maintain rapid growth and become a transit port connecting the pearl river delta and upstream guangxi.
Foshan river network, in addition to xijiang and beijiang, there are many tributaries. There are 76 navigable rivers in foshan, with the navigable mileage exceeding 1,350 kilometers, accounting for about 10% of the navigable mileage in the whole province. Foshan port is also the largest inland port in the pearl river basin. In recent years, foshan city, accelerate shunde waterway and xijiang seaward waterway construction of ports, and guangzhou, zhongshan jointly build the hinge of the nansha port, the guangzhou nansha port/is guangzhou nansha area to become fully engaged in foshan “area” and the construction of a large bay area of guangdong portal, foshan port to join bead west sea channel team, to improve competitiveness of the construction of foshan in the bay area. In 2017, both the cargo throughput and container throughput of foshan port achieved double-digit rapid development. Foshan port handled 80.16 million tons of cargo in the whole year, up 21.3% year-on-year. In terms of containers, foshan port handled 3.91 million TEU of containers in the whole year, up 21.7% year-on-year. In the future, foshan port will continue to promote cooperation with nansha port, zhongshan port, zhuhai port and other ports on the west bank of the pearl river estuary, and jointly build a world-class port cluster in the guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area.